OPTO-GENETICS is the process of controlling the brain activities with the help of the light. Now-a-days medical researches and developments are increased to improve the life span of a human beings as well as to do some specialized operations in human body without the help of physical activities. Generally brain is fully made up of Neurons and it is very difficult to read the activities of a single neuron. OPTO-GENETICS is one of the studies to know about the neuron’s activities and its behaviour. This detail study will give knowledge about how the brain will work and how emotions, thoughts are created in the brain.
Working of opto-genetics:
Neuroscientists first found that single neuron in the brain of the mouse produced a sudden light due to the firing of the neuron in the brain. By inserting the light activated gene into the genome, it will identify which neuron make the cell firing and cause damage to the brain cell. Electrical stimuli and drugs are not used for this problem because the stimuli and drugs are not having enough power to cure the particular problem. They will act on the whole brain cells and it will cause another problem on the neurons. To avoid this effect the Opto-Genetics is used with the help of light. The light beam will only concentrate on the particular neuron to cure the particular problem. That is the reason to use the light beam for the surgery.
The each cells present inside the body having microorganisms like algae. This organism has the capabilities to identify the light around them. From this way different types of light waves are used to eliminate the problems in neurons. These light activated cells can be inserted by using different types of techniques such as Electroporation, using Virus as a delivery vehicle. In the type of using virus vehicles, the harmless viruses are taken to inject the light activated cells into genome. After that process a fiber wire is connected with the cell and light beam is send through the fiber wire. Why they are using fiber wire means body cells are very minute and there are no possibilities to insert a long cable such as electrical wire.
Basics of optogenetics in stimulation:
Basically the Opto-genetics are used optical as well as genetics to cure or re-modify the neurons. This will helps to eliminate the problematic neurons, cardiac cells, cancer cells and etc. Stimulation is one of the major processes present in the brain to activate the each and every cell of the body. If stimulation is in abnormal way there are some other problems present in the brain. This Stimulation is the only preventing medium present in the body, if it takes some time delay there will not be a perfect transaction of information between the brain and cells of the body. Hence stimulation is very important to each and every living organism.
There are two types of stimulations present in the body and they are Non-specific stimulation and specific stimulation. In non-specific stimulation the non optical sources and conventional electrical sources will be used. But these sources make some problems to the non affected cells presenting around the affected cells. In specific stimulation method optical energy is used to eliminate or discard the affected cells present in that particular part.
The machine called Prizmatrix opto-genetics is one of the mostly used devices which provide different types of colors in single fiber optic wire. This device will give colors like UV light, blue, green, red, and etc. The key features of the led devices are High power density (>220mW/mm^2), TTL and analog outputs are isolated to avoid grounding conditions and low warm up time. For those types of features this device is mostly used in opto-genetics.
Opto-genetics used in vision improvement:
Opto-Genetics are also helpful to improve the eye vision. In this process light activated cells are injected to the DNA with the help of the Channelrhodoprin algae. It will help the cells to sense the light and move towards it. This will helps to the people to improve their visions who are suffered by the retinitis pigmentosa.
This Opto-Genetics will give salient features to eliminate the problems created due to the affected neurons and discard such type of cells. It will also kill cancer cells. In this method non electrical signal is used for the surgery and further processes. Hence there are no possibilities of damage of unaffected cells around the affected cells.
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